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谷歌翻译整合神经网络?翻译质量接近
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转注:前些天刷微博时突然发现,平时关注的一众段子手们都在为一条有关谷歌翻译的消息欢呼雀跃,有人发出感叹“是不是以后
都不用学英语了”,
 

 
谷歌神经机器翻译系统简称(GNMT)全称Google`s Neural Machine Translation System,昨日,谷歌在 ArXiv.org 上发表论文
《Google`s Neural Machine Translation System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation》介绍谷歌的
神经机器翻译系统(GNMT),当日机器之心就对该论文进行了摘要翻译并推荐到网站(www.jiqizhixin.com)上。今日,谷歌
Research Blog 发布文章对该研究进行了介绍,还宣布将 GNMT 投入到了非常困难的汉语-英语语言对的翻译生产中,这有待商榷。
十年前,我们发布了 Google Translate(谷歌翻译),这项服务背后的核心算法是基于短语的机器翻译(PBMT:Phrase-Based
Machine Translation)。自那时起,机器智能的快速发展已经给我们的语音识别和图像识别能力带来了巨大的提升,但改进机器
翻译仍然是一个高难度的目标。
 
今天,我们宣布发布谷歌神经机器翻译(GNMT:Google Neural Machine Translation)系统,该系统使用了当前最先进的训练技术,
能够实现到目前为止机器翻译质量的最大提升。我们的全部研究结果详情请参阅我们的论文《Google`s Neural Machine Translation
System: Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Translation》。
 
几年之前,我们开始使用循环神经网络(RNN:Recurrent Neural Networks)来直接学习一个输入序列(如一种语言的一个句子)到
一个输出序列(另一种语言的同一个句子)的映射。其中基于短语的机器学习(PBMT)将输入句子分解成词和短语,然后很大程度上
对它们进行独立地翻译,而神经机器翻译(NMT)则将整个输入句子视作翻译的基本单元。这种方法的优点是:相比于之前的基于短语
的翻译系统,这种方法所需的工程设计更少。当其首次被提出时,NMT 在中等规模的公共基准数据集上就达到了可与基于短语的翻译系
统媲美的准确度。
例,古诗翻译,古文学翻译,外文的广告翻译及图纸菜单翻译,如果用谷歌来翻译的话,笑话摆粗。所以,谷歌的人脑神经级翻译还为时
尚早,但对于日常生活简单交流的非专业翻译,谷歌翻译优势却十分明显。尽管有这些进步,但 NMT 的速度和准确度还没能达到成为
Google Translate 这样的生产系统的要求。我们的新论文 描述了我们怎样克服了让 NMT 在非常大型的数据集上工作的许多挑战,以及我
们如何打造了一个在速度和准确度上都已经足够能为谷歌的用户和服务带来更好的翻译的系统。
 

 
来自对比评估的数据,其中人类评估者对给定源句子的翻译质量进行比较评分。得分范围是 0 到 6,其中 0 表示「完全没有意义的翻译」,6
表示「完美的翻译」。
 
下面的可视化图展示了 GNMT 将一个汉语句子翻译成英语句子的过程。首先,该网络将该汉语句子的词编码成一个向量列表,其中每个向量
都表征了到目前为止所有被读取到的词的含义(「编码器(Encoder)」)。一旦读取完整个句子,解码器就开始工作——一次生成英语句子
的一个词(「解码器(Decoder)」。为了在每一步都生成翻译正确的词,解码器重点注意了与生成英语词最相关的编码的汉语向量的权重
分布(「注意(Attention)」,蓝色链接的透明度表示解码器对一个被编码的词的注意程度)。
 

 
使用人类评估的并排比较作为一项标准,GNMT 系统得出的翻译相比于之前的基于短语的生产系统实现了极大的提升。在双语人类评估者的
帮助下,我们在来自维基百科和新闻网站的样本句子上测定发现:GNMT 在多个主要语言对的翻译中将翻译误差降低了 55%-85% 以上。
 
今天除了发布这份研究论文之外,我们还宣布将 GNMT 投入到了一个非常困难的语言对(汉语-英语)的翻译的生产中。
 
现在,移动版和网页版的 Google Translate 的汉英翻译已经在 100% 使用 GNMT 机器翻译了——每天大约 1800 万条翻译。GNMT 的生产部署
是使用我们公开开放的机器学习工具套件 TensorFlow 和我们的张量处理单元(TPU:Tensor Processing Units),它们为部署这些强大的
GNMT 模型提供了足够的计算算力,同时也满足了 Google Translate 产品的严格的延迟要求。
 
汉语到英语的翻译是 Google Translate 所支持的超过 10000 种语言对中的一种,在未来几个月,我们还将继续将我们的 GNMT 扩展到远远更多的语言对上。
 
机器翻译还远未得到完全解决。GNMT 仍然会做出一些人类翻译者永远不出做出的重大错误,例如漏词和错误翻译专有名词或罕见
术语,以及将句子单独进行翻译而不考虑其段落或页面的上下文。为了给我们的用户带来更好的服务,我们还有更多的工作要做。
实例:
 
• APC远程监控服务可作为主要或辅助支持执行,以及时高效地预测、追踪和修补现场出现的问题。
• 远程监控服务(RMS)选件
• 远程监控服务(RMS)选件是一项24x7监控服务,可用作主要或辅助支持功能。
• 接受过训练的技术人员将监控物理设施的健康状态,以帮助在问题变严重之前对问题进行诊断、通知和解决。
平面布局视图平面视图机架前视图库存管理StruxureWare运行管理告警和IT影响网络管理刀片服务器StruxureWare容量管理功率容量 测量负载电源通路和电源依赖底部负载机架U-Space制冷模拟
3D制冷布局图 物理设备规划可视化管理集成StruxureWare变更管理工单流程设备目录 报表库存报表查账线索报表功率容量报表 机架U-Space报表能源使用报表网络报表仪表盘PUE/DCiE仪表盘  
能效管理仪表盘StruxureWare移动管理资产管理告警 工单添加设备预计演示时间(分钟) 60 30 70 25 启用StruxureWare运行管理脱机演示版若StruxureWare运行管理脱机演示版当前未运行,请按下列路径启动:• 选择Start(开始)、Programs(程序)、StruxureWare Operations Offline Demo(StruxureWare运行管理脱机演示版)(版本号)和StruxureWare Operations Demo(StruxureWare运行管理演示• 注意:StruxureWare运行管理脱机演示版可能需要花费几分钟时间进行加载。
• At the login screen, login using Username apc and Password apc. Overview of the StruxureWare Operations User Interface 
The Navigation pane provides access to locations and lists a hierarchy in a tree structure (rooms, rows, racks, equipment). 
Double-clicking a room opens it in the Floor Layout editor view (as shown).Views/ View Tabs 远程监控服务(RMS)选件
• 远程监控服务(RMS)选件是一项24x7监控服务,可用作主要或辅助支持功能。
• 接受过训练的技术人员将监控物理设施的健康状态,以帮助在问题变严重之前对问题进行诊断、通知和解决。
Application Level Menu Tab Indicating the Room Displayed in the EditorFloor Layout View Rack Layout View List View Editor (the viewing area) Status Bar 
*Application Bar: Operations – for seeing an overview of the data center model and to monitor alarms Planning – for configuration and planning of the data center model 
Analytics – for data analytics to help determine if the data center is operating efficiently Floor Layout View Description: 
• View an accurate representation of your data center through the easy to use graphical floor layout and birds-eye view. 
• View different overlays on the data center floor, such as power path, capacity groups, and measured load. 
• Multiple editors can be open simultaneously allowing the user to easily modify multiple data centers in parallel or move equipment from one layout to another. 
• The Floor Layout View is StruxureWare Operations functionality.  选择菜单栏上的Alarm Configuration(告警配置)下拉菜单,然后选择Remote Monitoring Service(远程监控服务)。
To Demo this Functionality: • With Operations selected in the Application bar, the Navigation tab selected in the upper pane, and with the Emea and Nam folders expanded to display their rooms, double-click on a room (e.g., the Berlin DC). 
- Note that the floor layout of the selected room is displayed in the editor and that the Floor Layout icon is now selected. 
• Note that the Physical view is the default view. Select the different views located below the floor layout and note the information that each conveys. 
- All views are covered in more detail later in this guide. Floor Layout View (continued) 
Additional Information: • Most floor layouts can be accurately created. • Blocks and gaps can be added to indicate non-usable areas on the data center floor. 
• Tile grids can be positioned. • Multi-select and drag-and-drop equipment placed in rows. • Snap to row, grid, and wall placement. 
• Unlimited Undo and Redo. Key Takeaways: • A floor plan could significantly affect the power density capability and electrical efficiency of a data center. 
• A visual image of a data center floor plan allows data center managers to not only see and monitor the entire data center in one centralized location; it also assists with management and optimization of the floor layout. • Icons and drawings in the StruxureWare Operations floor layout are intuitive and easy to follow and the graphical rendering is fast and appealing. Map View Description:  完成审查RMS信息之后,选择Cancel(取消)。本节提供有关如何演示StruxureWare运行管理套件的选定功能的指南。并且提供与此功能有关的附件描述性信息。
演示指南的此部分假设您正在使用StruxureWare运行管理脱机演示版。为帮您规划和组织客户演示,下列表格提供了基于客户受众演示功能的通用指南。
以下为通用指南,强烈建议您根据您的客户受众的具体需要定制您自己的产品
• You can use the map view to monitor the data center operations in a quick overview, including KPIs and any alarms in different locations and rooms. 
• From the map overview, you can double-click to drill down to locations > rooms > racks > servers for details or troubleshooting (and use the Up icon in the Toolbar to drill back up through the location hierarchy). 
• The Map View is the default view when you launch the application the first time. Subsequently, you can access it by clicking the Map View icon in the Toolbar or by double-clicking a location folder in the Navigation pane. 在这里,您可以登录StruxureWare中央管理器使用24x7远程监控服务(RMS)。• 选择RMS Devices(RMS设备)选项卡,以查看在RMS注册的设备。
• For each location folder and subfolder, you may assign an image as the background map. 
To Demo this Functionality: 
• Create a representation of locations and rooms. Select Planning > Data Center in the Application bar to be able to edit. In Navigation, select the root location icon. 
• Select File > New and one or more of the available elements. 
- Location (option to add container elements for geographical enterprise hierarchy). 
- Sub location. 
- Server Room (option to add room elements for representing white space in the model). 
- Store Room (for storing newly arrived servers not yet installed in a server room). 
- Electrical Room (option to add room elements for representing gray space in the model). 
- Supporting Infrastructure Space (option to add space elements for representing space outside the rooms in the model, for example for chillers on the roof). 
• If you do not have the Map View open, double-click a location in Navigation to open it. 
• Drag the information boxes representing the locations and rooms from the upper left corner into the wanted position on the map. 
• If you want another background image for the map view, customize it. Right-click the map view and select Properties. Click Select Image and browse to an image on the computer or network to import the image as background. 
Map View (continued) 
Additional Information: 
• Locations and rooms are represented by information boxes with pins pointing to a location on the map. 
• You can collapse and expand the information boxes by toggling the arrow icon in the upper right corner of the box. 
• Alarms overview: When collapsed, the information boxes hide the details but have an alarm status icon in the upper left corner. This allows you to see if there are alarms even when the box is collapsed. When expanded, the information boxes show the details, including an alarm section, summing up the total amount of alarms and the amount of normal, warning, critical alarms. 
• Capacity overview: If you have a valid StruxureWare Operations: Capacity license, the information boxes also show a capacity overview represented as a pie chart. It sums up the status of power, cooling, space, and network of the selected location or room.
Key Takeaways: You can now use map view to place your data center rooms and monitor the capacity KPIs and alarm information in one place. 
Rack Front View Description: 
• Detailed rack front view provides accurate graphical equipment representation and its location in the rack. 
• Automatically distribute and track single- and three-phase equipment power draw, ensuring all three phases on the power system carries a balanced load. 
• The Rack Front View is StruxureWare Operations functionality. To Demo this Functionality: 
• With a data center displayed in the Floor Layout view, double-click on a rack or select the Rack Layout icon in the toolbar. 
• Hover the mouse over the top, bottom, or side of a rack to view detailed information for the rack. 
• Hover the mouse over a piece of rack-mounted equipment to view detailed information for the item. 
• Select the Equipment Browser tab in the lower pane and search for “PowerEdge.” 
- Note the application’s dynamic search capability and all of the search results that are returned. 
• Note that the Physical view is the default view. Select the different views located below the rack layout view and note the information that each conveys. 
- All views are covered in more detail later in this guide. 
Rack Front View (continued) 
Additional Information: 
• Provides visual indications of pending moves, adds, and changes (StruxureWare Change functionality). 
• Shows how the phases are balanced (up to three bars below each rack). 
• The Equipment Browser can be used to search through custom properties and tags, export data, edit equipment directly, and multi-edit equipment. 
• Unlimited Undo and Redo. 
Key Takeaways: 
• The rack front view provides easy access to critical rack-level and server level information. This includes server placements, weight, power balancing, etc. 
• This information not only helps data center managers to see what’s in each rack without physically being there, it also helps them to monitor and optimize rack utilization. 
Inventory Management 
Description: 
• Shows device data within the physical layout for instant access to device details and asset attributes, and overview of data center operations. 
• Quickly locate equipment based on vendor name, model and type, and export equipment data to an Excel format. 
• Inventory Management is StruxureWare Operations functionality. 
To Demo this Functionality: 
• With Operations selected in the Application bar and a room displayed in the editor, and the Equipment Browser tab selected in the lower pane, select the Configure Columns icon in the lower pane and then select the equipment properties you wish to display. 
• Select OK and note that these equipment properties are now displayed in the Equipment Browser view in the lower pane. 
Inventory Management (continued) 
Additional Information: 
• The Inventory Management functionality can be used to show all of the equipment information that is contained within the application. 
• The Equipment Browser can be used to search through physical attributes, tags, and custom properties. 
Key Takeaways: 
• Inventory management is critical to data center managers who are dealing with increasing numbers of servers and infrastructure devices. 
• The inventory management functionality will allow them to locate equipment quickly in both the asset database and the graphical floor layout, greatly facilitating equipment audits and other inventory-related requests. 
Alarms and IT Impact 
Description: 
• Provides real time device failures within floor layout and rack front view for status of data center operations. 
• Shows the consequence of device failure on rack-based equipment for instant identification of critical business application impacts. 
• Alarms and IT Impact are StruxureWare Operations functionality.
To Demo this Functionality: 
• With Operations selected in the Application bar, display a data center in the editor that has a UPS in the room (e.g., the Berlin data center). 
• Select the Floor Layout view and then select the Alarms view tab. 
• To demonstrate what an alarm looks like in StruxureWare Operations, right-click on a UPS, select DEMO, and then select Trigger an alarm (severe). 
- Note that the alarm icon appears in the status bar indicating the presence of an alarm on a device monitored by StruxureWare Central. 
• To view the alarm message, either select the alarm icon or select the Alarms tab in the lower pane. 
- Note that you now can see the following items: alarm description, severity, device type, location, time occurred, device hostname, and a recommended action. 
• To simulate the IT impact of this alarm (StruxureWare Capacity feature), right-click on the UPS and select Simulate Impact. 
- Note that a Simulated Impact pop-up window opens that provides a list of devices in the physical infrastructure that would be impacted by this failure. 
Alarms and IT Impact (continued) 
To Demo this Functionality: (continued) 
• With the Simulated Impact pop-up window still open, select Configure Columns and note the different properties that can be displayed in this window. 
- In the Custom Property Columns section, select Contact and OS and then select OK to close the window. 
• Now select Export and note that this information can be exported as a .csv file. Select Cancel to close this window. 
• Select OK to close the open Simulated Impact window. 
• Right-click on the UPS, select DEMO, and then select Clear alarm(s). 
Additional Information: 
• If the data center owner has populated the rack-based equipment with details of applications hosted there, the IT Impact assessment will contain those details. 
• Recommended actions to resolve each alarm is presented in the “Alarm Details” panel. 
Key Takeaways: 
• The alarm capability is critical to data center managers who want to be informed of any infrastructure failures in real time. It also allows them to locate the failed devices quickly and react promptly to mitigate the impact based on the recommended actions that are provided. 
• The alarm simulation feature comes in handy to run what-if scenarios and to provide answers to the complicated data center planning challenges. 
Virtualization Management Integration 
Description: 
• With the Virtualization Management Integration functionality, critical events are translated into a server impact analysis and at-risk virtual machines are automatically migrated to healthy hosts through integrations with VMware vSphere™ and Microsoft System Center Virtual Machine Manager™. 
• Provides easy access to Virtual Machine Host information. 
• Virtualization Management Integration is StruxureWare Capacity functionality. 
To Demo this Functionality: 
• With Operations selected in the Application bar, display the Berlin data center in the Rack Layout view. 
• Locate Row A, Racks 4 and 5. 
- Note that a virtual server is indicated by an icon of a V inside of a shaded circle. 
• Hover the mouse over a virtual server. 
- Note the General, Power Consumption, Power Connection, Custom Properties, and Virtual Machine Host information that is provided. 
Virtualization Management Integration (continued) 
Additional Information: 
• To quickly search the physical location of a virtual machine, enable the Virtual Machine Host Columns in the Equipment Browser in the lower pane. 
• White Paper #118: “Virtualization: Optimized Power and Cooling to Maximize Benefits” provides additional information on this topic. 
Key Takeaways: 
• Virtualization has become increasingly prominent in data centers, resulting in improved server utilization and real time service deployment. 
• Integrating with virtualization management systems is a differentiator that allows virtualized servers to move away from equipment that is under compromised health conditions, improving data center availability. 
 
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